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- Signal Transduction: Principles, Pathways, and Processes
- Signal transduction : principles, pathways, and processes
- Signal transduction
- Cell signaling
A reference on cellular signaling processes, the third edition of Signal Transduction continues in the tradition of previous editions, in providing a historical overview of how the concept of stimulus-response coupling arose in the early twentieth century and shaped our current understanding of the action of hormones, cytokines, neurotransmitters, growth factors and adhesion molecules.
As living organisms we are constantly receiving and interpreting signals from our environment. These signals can come in the form of light, heat, odors, touch or sound. The cells of our bodies are also constantly receiving signals from other cells. These signals are important to keep cells alive and functioning as well as to stimulate important events such as cell division and differentiation. Signals are most often chemicals that can be found in the extracellular fluid around cells.
Signal Transduction: Principles, Pathways, and Processes
In biology , cell signaling cell signalling in British English , or cell-cell communication, governs the basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions. Biological processes are complex molecular interactions that involve many signals. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development , tissue repair , and immunity , as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information processing may cause diseases such as cancer , autoimmunity , and diabetes. All cells receive and respond to signals from their surroundings. This is accomplished by a variety of signal molecules that are secreted or expressed on the surface of one cell and bind to a receptor expressed by the other cells, thereby integrating and coordinating the function of the many individual cells that make up organisms.
Signal transduction, cell division, differentiation and development: Towards unifying mechanisms for pattern formation in plants. E-mail: mcdornel esalq. The elaboration of plant form and function depends on the ability of a plant cell to divide and differentiate. The decisions of individual cells to enter the cell cycle, maintain proliferation competence, become quiescent, expand, differentiate, or die depend on cell-to-cell communication and on the perception of various signals. These signals can include hormones, nutrients, light, temperature, and internal positional and developmental cues. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding the molecular control of plant pattern formation, especially in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
Signal transduction : principles, pathways, and processes
All organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular, need to respond to their ever-changing environment in order to survive and flourish. Such responses are governed by the ability of cells to sense physical changes and chemical cues occurring around them. Cells respond to a wide range of extrinsic signals that include chemical messengers e. In this free course, General principles of cellular communication , you will explore the most common paradigm for cellular communication, which is the detection of extrinsic stimuli by receptors on the surface of cells. Particular emphasis is placed on how the interaction between an extrinsic stimulus and its receptor on the cell surface subsequently causes cellular responses through the activation of specific intracellular signalling pathways. You will explore this chain of events using well-characterised examples in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. This OpenLearn course is an adapted extract from the Open University course S Biological science: from genes to species.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events , most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases , which ultimately results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors , although in some cases the term sensor is used. When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. These molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth , proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. Each component or node of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. Ligands are termed first messengers , while receptors are the signal transducers , which then activate primary effectors.
Signal Transduction: Principles, Pathways, and Processes. Edited by Lewis C. Cantley, Tony Hunter, Richard Sever, and Jeremy Thorner. Cold Spring Harbor.
Virtually every aspect of cellular function within a metazoan organism, including proliferative status, metabolism, gene expression, cytoskeletal organization, and indeed the cell's very survival, is dependent on external signaling molecules, either in the form of soluble hormones or proteins anchored to the surface of an adjacent cell or the extracellular matrix ECM. These factors exert their effects either by binding receptors displayed on the surface of the cell or, in the case of compounds such as steroids, by traversing the plasma membrane and directly engaging intracellular receptors. In addition, these external signals can be linked to intrinsic cues that regulate events such as polarity and asymmetric cell division, and that monitor the molecular composition of the cell, and therefore determine whether suitable conditions prevail for cell growth and division. Over the last two decades, we have achieved considerable understanding of the mechanisms by which signals are conveyed from receptors at the plasma membrane to their targets in the cytoplasm and nucleus.
NCBI Bookshelf. A cell is highly responsive to specific chemicals in its environment. Hormones are chemical signals that tell a cell to respond to a change in conditions. Molecules in food or aromas communicate taste and smell through their interaction with specialized sensory cells. This chapter provides an overview of information metabolism —how cells receive, process, and respond to information from the environment.
Signal transduction pathways play key roles in the initiation, progression and dissemination of cancer. Thus, signaling molecules are attractive targets for cancer therapeutics and enormous efforts have gone into the development of small molecule inhibitors of these pathways. However, regrettably, there has been only moderate progress to date, primarily in connection with the RAS signaling pathway.
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