Theories Of Language Acquisition And Learning Pdf

theories of language acquisition and learning pdf

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Second-language acquisition

Theories of Language Development in Children. By Anthony M. There is no simple answer that explains where words come from. So, as parents and teachers help children to talk, they should understand that there is no clear theory that explains how children learn the language they need to become skillful in reading and communication.

However, there are some key theories that have been developed to explain language learning: behavioral, linguistic, and interactional. Looking at the theories and the history of language theory development helps us think about language development from different points of view.

The shortcomings of these theories illustrate that language is not easily explained. A range of theories of language acquisition has been created in order to explain this apparent problem. These theories differ but they form the basis of the mystery behind language development among children. Thus, this paper examined the major language development theories in children. The general objective that guided this paper was to examine various language development theories in children.

Language acquisition forms a critical stage in development of children. These theories can unveil, though not wholly, the mysteries surrounding language development. The earliest theory about language development assumed that children. While research has shown that children. There are various language development theories that have been propagated by various proponents. This section briefly examines four main theories. Behaviorists believe language is something that can be observed and measured.

The need to use language is stimulated and language is uttered in response to stimuli. To the behaviorist, competence in the rules of language is not as important as the ability to speak it; speaking is what makes language real.

Skinner is perhaps the best known behaviorist who posited that children are conditioned by their environment to respond to certain stimuli with language. When children speak the language of their parents they are rewarded and become more skillful.

They grow in their ability to respond in a manner that responds to the environmental stimuli given by his parents. Gleason and Ratner The manner in which a child acquires language is a matter long debated by linguists and child psychologists alike.

The father of most nativist theories of language acquisition is Noam Chomsky, who brought greater attention to the innate capacity of children for learning language, which had widely been considered a purely cultural phenomenon based on imitation.

Nativist linguistic theories hold that children learn through their natural ability to organize the laws of language, but cannot fully utilize this talent without the presence of other humans. This does not mean, however, that the child requires formal tutelage of any sort. They are born with the major principles of language in place, but with many parameters to set such as whether sentences in the language s they are to acquire must have explicit subjects.

According to nativist theory, when the young child is exposed to a language, their LAD makes it possible for them to set the parameters and deduce the grammatical principles, because the principles are innate. This is still a very controversial view, and many linguists and psychologists do not believe language is as innate as Chomsky argues.

There are important arguments both for and against Chomsky's view of development. Another argument is that without a propensity for language, human infants would be unable to learn such complete speech patterns in a natural human environment where complete sentences are the exception. This theory is an approach to language acquisition that stresses the environment and the context in which the language is being learned.

It focuses on the pragmatics of language rather than grammar, which should come later. In this approach, the beginning speaker and the experienced speaker--be they child and adult or second-language learner and fluent speaker--exist in a negotiated arrangement where feedback is always possible.

The basic appeal of this approach is the importance it places on the home and the cultural environment in early-childhood language acquisition. Language, according to this theory, is not an innate ability.

Rather, it develops in negotiating your environment. Hence, vocabulary is bound by context or, alternatively, by the culture within which speech is necessary and understandable.

This approach to language acquisition is based on culture and environment. Thus, it is not universal in scope. In fact, the theory holds that language is never universal, but always context- and time-bound. On one hand, this means that language seems to be provincial, but also utilitarian, because it develops in the environment where it is most needed and most likely to be understood.

On the other hand, it keeps the level of basic comprehension solely on the level of the initial environment. Transitions to other environments, at least on the surface, seem to be a problem. Lewis, The primary reason to support interactionism is based largely on the idea that utterances make sense if the teacher is aware of the context. In this case, thought does not make objects; it reflects them and the context in which they are found.

Comprehensibility, rather than grammar, is the primary concern of early-childhood language acquisition. On the other hand, the mere absorption of words, in Chomsky's view, leads to nonsense phrases that must be corrected through the teaching of structure and grammar.

One view stresses the relation between learner and culture; the other, between learner and arbitrary utterances of experienced speakers. This theory was proposed by Jean Piaget. In addition, language is only one of many human mental or cognitive activities. His particular insight was the role of maturation simply growing up in children's increasing capacity to understand their world: they cannot undertake certain tasks until they are psychologically mature enough to do so.

His research has spawned a great deal more, much of which has undermined the detail of his own, but like many other original investigators, his importance comes from his overall vision.

Wood, Piaget proposed that children's thinking does not develop entirely smoothly: instead, there are certain points at which it "takes off" and moves into completely new areas and capabilities.

He saw these transitions as taking place at about 18 months, 7 years and 11 or 12 years. This has been taken to mean that before these ages children are not capable no matter how bright of understanding things in certain ways, and has been used as the basis for scheduling the school curriculum. Satterly , Language development is a complex and a unique human quality that no theory is as yet able to completely explain.

Newer theories will probably develop from what has already been explored. Bigge , M. Learning Theories for Teachers. London: Longman. Gleason, J. Lewis, S. Satterly , D. Piaget and Education" in R. L Gregory ed. Wood, D. Wyse, D. Teaching English, Language and Literacy. London: Ro. Suggested Citation in APA. Wanjohi, A. Access PDF Format. Click to access a printer friendly copy in PDF Format.

Main Theories of Language Acquisition

By Henna Lemetyinen , published Language is a cognition that truly makes us human. Whereas other species do communicate with an innate ability to produce a limited number of meaningful vocalizations e. This ability is remarkable in itself. What makes it even more remarkable is that researchers are finding evidence for mastery of this complex skill in increasingly younger children.

Theories of Language Development in Children. By Anthony M. There is no simple answer that explains where words come from. So, as parents and teachers help children to talk, they should understand that there is no clear theory that explains how children learn the language they need to become skillful in reading and communication. However, there are some key theories that have been developed to explain language learning: behavioral, linguistic, and interactional. Looking at the theories and the history of language theory development helps us think about language development from different points of view. The shortcomings of these theories illustrate that language is not easily explained.

Theories of the early stages of language acquisition

Second-language acquisition SLA , sometimes called second-language learning — otherwise referred to as L2 language 2 acquisition , is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a sub-discipline of applied linguistics but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education. A central theme in SLA research is that of interlanguage : the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules.

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Bloom, Lois. At the close of the 20th century, several influential theories of language acquisition had emerged out of nativist theories in linguistics or logical arguments in the philosophy of language. This review of this last generation of theory and research in language acquisition emphasizes, in contrast, explicitly psychological theories of language development. Acquiring language is always a psychological task for the child, not a logical one, and the linguistic problems to be solved are always embedded in personal and interpersonal contexts. Developments in affect, cognition, and social interaction provide the driving force for acquiring a language: Affect promotes engagement with the physical and personal world for learning and for sustaining intersubjectivity with other persons.

Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition

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Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill. Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding. The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear.

Humans are storytelling beings. As far as we know, no other species has the capacity for language and ability to use it in endlessly creative ways. From our earliest days, we name and describe things. For people immersed in the study of language and the study of learning, one really important question has engendered a lot of debate over the years: How much of this ability is innate — part of our genetic makeup — and how much do we learn from our environments? But is there an inherited ability underlying our individual languages — a structural framework that enables us to grasp, retain, and develop language so easily?


guiding the course of language acquisition are, innatist theory, contains special language-learning mechanisms at birth in which the main.


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A DISCUSSION OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES

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