State And Government In Ancient India Pdf

state and government in ancient india pdf

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State And Government In Ancient India

The three theories of origin of state in ancient India are as follows: 1. Social Contract Theory 2. Divine Origin Theory 3. Organic Theory. The core issues in the study of political science are the state and the government. The institution of state is studied in relation to its origin, nature, aims and functions of the state in ancient India. The dawn of civilization was stated to have marked the beginning of the origin of state.

The state in ancient India was considered necessary, for it ensures peace, order and happiness. It was a social organization with political power. However, ancient scholars were not unanimous in their opinion with regard to the origin of the state.

According to some, state was the outcome of a contract mainly political in nature between the rulers and the ruled. They opine that prior to the origin of state there was something called a golden age, wherein the people enjoyed a life of peace, order, self-discipline and happiness. Similarly, several theories like force theory, patriarchal theory, matriarchal theory, divine origin theory and finally the evolutionary theory advanced the origin of the state.

Secondly, the Saptanga theory propounded by ancient Indian thinkers discusses the forms and functions of the state. Promotion of Dharma was considered the primary concern of the state.

Thirdly, monarchy was considered as the ideal form of government by a majority of the ancient Indian thinkers. The origin of state has remained a controversial subject since olden days. It was one of the Vedic textbooks titled Aitreya Brahmana that provided an earliest record of the origin of state and kingship. The work is a description of a legend that explains the war between the Gods and the demons and the defeat of the former. This defeat, as described by the book, made Gods unite and appoint Soma as their King who was expected to serve the human needs and save the country from military attacks.

With the establishment of the kingship, the state gradually evolved. There are basically three theories that describe the origin of state, namely. The social contract theory, one of the common theories of the origin of state, believes that state is a result of a contract between the king and his subjects or representatives. The king, thus appointed, was expected to save the state and the subjects from external aggression and establish order and security within the state.

However, the earliest Vedic works never stated that state was the result of a contract. But, they clarified that king was elected to wage a successful war against the demons.

This theory of origin of kingship as well as the state was not widely acclaimed in the ancient Indian polity. The king, according to this theory, was a subordinate to law, which was made by the society and not him. The community as a whole was given greater importance than the king. However, certain ancient scriptures like Manusamhita explain that the origin of state is from the divine. The great epic of India, the Ramayana, also clearly laid out that king was of divine origin.

It is stated therein that men approached Brahma the Creator to provide them a king and accordingly after all the Gods spared a portion of their power, a being in the human form emerged and was made the king. The Mahabharata, another great epic, explains that king is a person endowed with superior talent and calibre descended from heaven to the king on the earth. Similarly, Puranas also describe the divine origin of the king and the state.

The Agni Purana states that the kings were embodiments or forms of Lord Vishnu the god who sustains the earth. It is also interesting to note that some kings had titles like Chakravarthi— universal emperor, while some of the Mauryan emperors conferred titles like Devanam Priya, beloved of Gods, upon them.

This theory holds the view that state is like an organism and that each organ has a specific function to perform. The theory believes that the healthy functioning of the whole organism depends upon the healthy conditions of each part of the body or organism and its efficient functioning.

The seven parts of the body, that is, state are the king or the sovereign, the minister, the territory and population, the fortified city or the capital, the treasury, the army, the friends and the allies. Among all the seven elements or parts, it is the king who is most important. The Matsya Purana states that the king was the root and the subjects were the trees.

Similarly, Sukra Neetisaara, compares the state with that of human body. According to Sukracharya, the king is the head, the ministers the eyes, the treasurer the mouth, the army the heart, the fort the hands, and the territory the feet. Mahabharata also supports this theory and that every element or the limbs are important for the proper functioning of the state.

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HISTORY -I MODULE II: POLITY, STATE AND ADMINISTRATION ANCIENT INDIA: VEDIC POLITY

The three theories of origin of state in ancient India are as follows: 1. Social Contract Theory 2. Divine Origin Theory 3. Organic Theory. The core issues in the study of political science are the state and the government. The institution of state is studied in relation to its origin, nature, aims and functions of the state in ancient India. The dawn of civilization was stated to have marked the beginning of the origin of state.


bhepallianceinc.orgpe: application/pdf bhepallianceinc.orgfication: Political Science bhepallianceinc.org: State And Government In Ancient India bhepallianceinc.org


3 Theories of Origin of State in Ancient India

India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India.

It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; [f] China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55, years ago. In the early medieval era, Christianity , Islam , Judaism , and Zoroastrianism put down roots on India's southern and western coasts. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly, [44] but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.

Our knowledge of the ancient world has been radically altered by impressive archaeological discoveries over the last two centuries. Yet, even during the nineteenth century British explorers and officials were curious about brick mounds dotting the landscape of northwest India, where Pakistan is today. A large one was located in a village named Harappa see Figure 3. A British army engineer, Sir Alexander Cunningham, sensed its importance because he also found other artifacts among the bricks, such as a seal with an inscription. He was, therefore, quite dismayed that railway contractors were pilfering these bricks for ballast.

State and government in ancient India

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. The present work by a well-known authority on Ancient India deals in a comprehensive manner with the ancient Hindu political ideas, theories and ideals and describes the different features and aspects of the ancient Indian administration in its numerous branches.

Most of the states in ancient India were politically stable. They often remained for long periods free from internal squabbles and intrigues of the kind we see today. This situation helped them a great deal in initiating measures aimed at improving the quality of life of the common people.

Physicians of ancient India

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Clidia C.

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Title: STATE AND GOVERNMENT IN ANCIENT INDIA ED. 3RD. Authors: ALTEKAR, A. S. Keywords: SOCIAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE GOVERNMENT.

Bienvenida A.

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prehensive work, explaining succinctly the Hindu political ideas, theories and as to how far the State of ancient India can be called theo. cratic has also been.

Yoana V.

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State and Government in Ancient India, from Earliest Times to c. A.D. By DrA. S. Altekar, M.A., LL.B., bhepallianceinc.org pp. viii + Motilal Banarsi Dass, Banaras.

Millie D.

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The present work by a well-known authority on Ancient India deals in a comprehensive manner with the ancient Hindu political ideas, theories and ideals India's Ancient Past · R. Sharma. Geography. PDF. Alert. Research Feed.

Ladolfo T.

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