Harmful And Useful Bacteria Pdf

harmful and useful bacteria pdf

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In this article we will discuss about the harmful and useful activities of bacteria. Some important bacterial diseases of plants and animals, including human beings is given below Table 2. They break down the nitrates in a stepwise manner either to ammonia through assimilatory nitrate reduction or to N 2 through dissimilatory nitrate reduction.

Anaerobic sugar fermentation reactions by various bacteria produce different end products. The production of ethanol by yeasts has been exploited by the brewing industry for thousands of years and is used for fuel production. Specific bacteria carry out the oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid in the production of vinegar.

Microbes and Environment

Bacteria are microorganisms and they are useful to us. Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes. The beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. Microbes are also important in agriculture for the compost and fertilizer production. Bacteria are used in genetic engineering and genetic changes. Sourdough bread is made to rise by fermentation , with a leaven that consists of bacteria, often combined with wild yeast enzymes.

Some of these bacteria can be harmful to human health. Drinking water with disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or parasites collectively called pathogens can make you sick. It is not practical to test drinking water for every type of pathogen, but it is simple to test drinking water for coliform bacteria. The presence of coliform bacteria can indicate there may be harmful pathogens in the water. The presence of coliform bacteria, specifically E.

Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments. These organisms can live in soil, the ocean and inside the human gut. Humans' relationship with bacteria is complex. Sometimes bacteria lend us a helping hand, such as by curdling milk into yogurt or helping with our digestion. In other cases, bacteria are destructive, causing diseases like pneumonia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA.

Beneficial and Detrimental Roles of Microorganisms

Microbes are omnipresent in the biosphere, and their presence invariably affects the environment in which they grow. The effects of microbes on their environment can be beneficial or harmful or inapparent with regard to human measure or observation. The most significant effect of the microbes on earth is their ability to recycle the primary elements that make up all living systems, especially carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen N. Primary production involves photosynthetic organisms which take up CO 2 from the atmosphere and convert it to organic cellular material. The process is also called CO 2 fixation, and it accounts for a very large portion of organic carbon available for synthesis of cell material. Decomposition or biodegradation results in the breakdown of complex organic materials to other forms of carbon that can be used by other organisms. There is no naturally occurring organic compound that cannot be degraded by some microbe, although some synthetic compounds such as Teflon, plastics, insecticides, and pesticides are broken down very slowly or not at all.

Microorganisms occupy every small niche of the ecosystem and influence us in many ways. Their influence on human life is generally beneficial but at times can also be detrimental. The diversified role of microbes begins at their natural habitats. Elements as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorus are basic requirement for life forms to survive. They are found in abundance in nature, though not necessarily in forms that organisms can use. Microorganisms mainly bacteria and fungi are primarily responsible for converting these elements into usable forms. Many bacteria and fungi utilize organic molecules releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which is used by algae, cyanobacteria, and higher plants to produce carbohydrates during photosynthesis.

Economic importance of bacteria

Этот метод проб и ошибок был известен как применение грубой силы. На это уходило много времени, но математически гарантировало успех. Когда мир осознал возможности шифровки с помощью грубой силы, пароли стали все длиннее и длиннее.

Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites in Drinking Water

 - Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру. В этом вся ее сущность. Блестящий криптограф - и давнишнее разочарование Хейла.

Micro-organisms: harmful microbes

Не лезь не в свое. - Ну. Беккер кивнул.

Джабба схватил калькулятор и начал нажимать кнопки. - А что это за звездочка? - спросила Сьюзан.  - После цифр стоит какая-то звездочка. Джабба ее не слушал, остервенело нажимая на кнопки.

Harmful and Useful Activities of Bacteria | Botany

Лиланд Фонтейн, Чед Бринкерхофф и Мидж Милкен в безмолвном ужасе смотрели на открывшуюся их глазам картину.


Morgan D.


Bacteria, also called germs, are microscopic organisms not visible with the naked eye.



They include bacteria, protozoans, algae, and fungi. Beneficial microorganisms produce a favorable result. They are helpful and useful. Harmful.

Erik J.


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