File Name: cloning pros and cons .zip
Handbook of Global Bioethics pp Cite as.
Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy or clone of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of person cloning has raised controversies. These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality.
Society is much more relaxed about the idea of cloning plants when compared to cloning animals. Some people see this technology as way to mimic natural processes since an identical twin is essentially a clone that happens thorough natural reproductive methods.
Dolly the Sheep was a successful experiment because scientists found that they could produce offspring from an undifferentiated cell through nuclear transfer. We have used this method to improve the animal cloning processes for other species, but the cost of following this process for commercial purposes is still way too high.
When we examine the advantages and disadvantages of cloning animals, we must balance the need to push evolution along while still providing diversity in genetic structures. We already know that entire monocrops get wiped out when disease impacts agriculture, so the same outcome is quite likely when we take the same approach with the animal kingdom. Cloning animals would allow us to balance environmental habitats.
Our planet is flexible in its ability to sustain like, but we are learning that our ecosystems have less elasticity. If an animal becomes extinct or disappears because their habitat does not support life in needed ways, then the outcomes in the local region can be very dramatic. Yellowstone National Park saw a more significant erosion of their riverbeds when wolf populations started declining, and that is one example of many.
Cloning could encourage us to restore this equilibrium by replacing or even reintroducing cloned animals that are either extinct or endangered. Cloning animals would create more security in the global food supply.
There will be somewhere between 9 billion to 10 billion people living on our planet by the year if current population trends continue. That figure could double in the century after. Cloning animals is a reasonable approach that could help to stabilize our supply of animal-based proteins.
Cloning animals could advance scientific discoveries in other fields. The scientific processes that allow us to clone animals could be useful in the duplication of specific cells found throughout the body. We could potentially take the techniques discovered in this field to produce new tissues or organs as needed. We could evaluate the cloned cells to determine the usefulness of each process to determine how progression can occur in these fields.
Cloning animals could help pet parents find greater comfort. Losing a pet hurts as much as it does because these animals often become family members. The presence of cats, dogs, and others add structure to our daily routines. These companions help to keep us active, and they can even support us in our efforts to overcome the roadblocks that happen in life.
Pets give us purpose. The processes of cloning animals would allow people to protect their memories of a beloved companion with an identical animal created by scientists. This effort would still create a unique animal for the species, but it would also offer some continuity and support that could lessen emotional reactions. Cloning animals does not create exact duplication.
When we clone animals, there is not an exact duplication that occurs. The genetic material gets put into an embryo that contains unique cells. These processes then make it possible for the clone to produce offspring later in life. The work that scientists performed with Dolly the Sheep created six lambs in total as she was bred with a Welsh Mountain ram. The first was named Bonnie, and she was born in Then Dolly had twins that her caregivers called Rosie and Sally. In the fall of , she would have triplets that were called Cotton, Darcy, and Lucy.
Those offspring were not sterile as some researchers predicted, showing the full potential of what this scientific process could create. Cloning animals allows us to preserve endangered species. Even then, two of the horses were hybrids. Standard breeding practices helped to save the species, which now counts in the thousands of individuals. The last known male of the species died in March With only two females of the same subspecies currently living, the only way to save them is through the cloning process.
This work gives us the ability to preserve endangered animals — and maybe even bring extinct ones back into our world. Cloning animals gives us the opportunity to produce the most desirable traits.
When scientists work on animal cloning, they are doing what others have done through selective breeding for more than 1, years. The outcomes are similar to what we can achieve through natural reproductive processes that include human interference.
This work is a chance to create precise, desired traits in animals. We might use animal cloning to produce dairy cows that offer more milk. Researchers could look at the idea of cloning specific hens as a way to improve commercial egg production.
Livestock animals could be bred through this process to produce more meat per carcass. The applications are almost limitless when we look at the full potential of this technology. Cloning animals could help us to reduce human disease. One of the most problematic illnesses that humans battle each season is influenza. Flu epidemics have killed millions of people in the past, especially when a new strain of the virus begins to circulate through the population.
About 1 in 5 people will get sick with it each year, even with the availability of annual vaccines to prevent it. The flu virus originates in birds, pigs, and other animal species. Our animal cloning processes could work to stop its development by creating more resiliency against its activity when it forms. Cloning animals would not impact the quality of the food supply. Rulings in from research at the time found that it is safe for people to consume animal products from cloned species. The FDA ruled that any livestock species can enter the commercial food chain.
That means scientists can look for ways to improve the nutrient profile of the proteins we consume so that everyone has a chance to eat healthier without changing their habits. Think of this advantage as the beef version of working with enriched flour. Cloning animals is the least effective way to produce offspring. That means about one embryo out of every will be in a quality suitable enough for implantation. Once scientists reach this stage, the viability of the offspring is still questionable, with many of the embryos spontaneously aborting during the pregnancy.
Getting an animal that is the quality of Dolly is about a 1 in shot. Even when the cloning process is successful, the health of the offspring is often questionable. About 1 in 4 bovines end up suffering from edema, and there can be fetal size issues that can impact the health of the mother. Our success rates in this area are improving, but they are nowhere near where they need to be for this to be a commercially viable process.
Cloning animals is expensive. Cloning animals reduces the genetic diversity of that species. When animals come from the same genetic profile, then a reduction in diversity occurs at the genetic level. This process may not impact the overall health of the species at first, but it can cause long-term problems if it were to continue.
The likelihood of genetic disease and other health issues rises when parents with similar genetics have offspring. Even though cloning is meant to save a species, this disadvantage can lead them closer to extinction or population decline. Cloning animals would eventually slow the rate of reproduction. Animals that have the highest levels of genetic similarity tend to have the lowest rate of reproduction.
Male cats have low sperm production rates, and there is little genetic variety passed along when mating is successful. Severe congenital disabilities occur frequently with cubs.
Cloning animals would produce a similar outcome. Breeding programs with cheetahs are already unsuccessful, so it is not unreasonable to think a similar problem would occur with other species. Cloning animals has a history of creating abnormal pregnancies. Even when a pregnancy comes to term using a cloned embryo, it is more common for a C-section to be necessary.
Dystocia and development abnormalities also appear more often, creating a higher risk of losing the mother during the birthing process. Cloning animals can create long-term health issues to manage.
Dolly the Sheep had shorter telomeres than others of her species, and this genetic trait may have been a contributing factor to her living six years instead of the expected nine.
Cloned animals can experience life-threatening health issues at any time because the cell programming can alter their genetic profile. Cloning animals could result in sterility issues. This disadvantage is another issue that is coming to a resolution in the near future, but it still impacts the current generation of animal clones. When scientists create a clone, then there is a higher risk that the animal will not have the capability of producing offspring.
Cloning animals could result in unforeseen consequences. Restoring life to our planet seems like a worthy goal on paper, but it could produce more harm than good in some situations. An extinction from centuries ago altered the natural habitats so that the world could adjust to the change. Introducing wooly mammoths back into society could create massive problems with animal management in the wild.
Even small introductions, like the dodo bird, could create problems with homeostasis. We have no way to know how modern diseases would impact the ancient creatures we might try to revive through cloning.
It could cause viruses to mutate, introduce new pathogens, or expose people to harmful bacteria. Cloning animals could eventually lead to cloning humans. There is no supporting scientific evidence to suggest that a cloned human embryo exists, although genetic alteration reports have come from China in Cloning humans is more complicated than it is for other mammals because of the location of spindle proteins on the chromosomes.
Removing the nucleus removes these proteins.
PDF | Dolly, the sheep, was the first mammal cloned from a somatic cell !human!beings:!an!assessment!of!the!ethical!issues!pro!and!con.!In:!!
The pros and cons of human therapeutic cloning in the public debate.
Dolly the sheep, the first mammal cloned from a somatic body cell, came into the world innocent as a lamb. However, soon after the announcement of her birth in February Wilmut et al. An important, and for many people troubling question arose: if the cloning of sheep is possible, will scientists soon start cloning humans as well; and if they did, would this be wrong or unwise? She represented a first undesirable and dangerous step to applying reproductive cloning in humans, something that many agreed should never be done.
About Map Blog Contact. Human cloning could lead to medical advancements. The Pros of Human Cloning. Approximately 1 in , people in the U. Although ethical issues stand in the way of cloning full humans, other animals, like sheep, rats, cats, dogs and even monkeys have been cloned.
I think nobody can afford to ignore the progress that is made in science today. Scientific research gives us knowledge about things that nobody ever thought about just a few years ago, for example the cloning of humans. In this essay I want to focus on this topic with special regard to the advantages and disadvantages and the social and ethical problems.
Cloning , the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens often in nature—for example, when a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination.
14 Pages, Grade: 2+(B)
As far as anyone really knows, scientists have yet to clone a human being, and there are no federal laws against it in the United State. However, seven states prohibit it altogether, and 10 states only allow it for biomedical research. While more than 30 countries formally ban cloning for reproductive purposes, China, England, Israel, Singapore and Sweden do allow cloning for research, but disallow reproductive cloning. The definition of a clone as explained by Encyclopaedia Britannica is a cell or living thing, an organism, that is "genetically identical to the original cell or organism" from which it comes. The word itself comes from the ancient Greek word "klon," which means twig. Single-cell organisms like some yeasts and bacteria naturally reproduce clones of parent cells via budding or binary fission.
Беккер нахмурился и положил трубку на рычаг. Он совсем забыл: звонок за границу из Испании - все равно что игра в рулетку, все зависит от времени суток и удачи. Придется попробовать через несколько минут. Беккер старался не обращать внимания на легкий запах перца. Меган сказала, что, если тереть глаза, будет только хуже. Он даже представить себе не может, насколько хуже.
Но мы не имеем права сообщать информацию личного характера… - Это очень важно, - настаивал Беккер. - Мне просто нужно узнать, улетела ли. И больше .
Мистер Чатрукьян, такое уже случалось. Нет никакого файла, который мог бы заразить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Вы ошибаетесь, сэр! - вскричал Чатрукьян.
Слева и справа от алтаря в поперечном нефе расположены исповедальни, священные надгробия и дополнительные места для прихожан. Беккер оказался в центре длинной скамьи в задней части собора. Над головой, в головокружительном пустом пространстве, на потрепанной веревке раскачивалась серебряная курильница размером с холодильник, описывая громадную дугу и источая едва уловимый аромат. Колокола Гиральды по-прежнему звонили, заставляя содрогаться каменные своды.
Да. Шестнадцать. - Уберите пробелы, - твердо сказал Дэвид.
Когда интервьюер спросил у Сьюзан, не занималась ли она сексом с животными, она с трудом удержалась, чтобы не выбежать из кабинета, но, так или иначе, верх взяли любопытство, перспектива работы на самом острие теории кодирования, возможность попасть во Дворец головоломок и стать членом наиболее секретного клуба в мире - Агентства национальной безопасности. Беккер внимательно слушал ее рассказ.
Так вот почему Дэвид отложил поездку в Стоун-Мэнор. - Сегодня утром я послал за ним машину. Он сказал, что позвонит тебе перед вылетом.
Он увидел пятна света. Сначала слабые, еле видимые на сплошном сером фоне, они становились все ярче. Попробовал пошевелиться и ощутил резкую боль.
На рассвете я усмирил свою гордыню и позвонил директору - и, уверяю тебя, это был бы тот еще разговорчик. Доброе утро, сэр. Извините, что пришлось вас разбудить. Почему я звоню. Я только что выяснил, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ устарел.
Всем известно, что невзламываемый алгоритм - математическая бессмыслица.