Dyslipidemia And Coronary Artery Disease Pdf

dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease pdf

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Dyslipidemia, defined as elevated total or low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol levels, or low levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol, is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease CHD and stroke. The incidence of dyslipidemia is high: In , approximately 25 percent of adults in the United States had total cholesterol greater than

Metrics details. Dyslipidemia may be defined as increased levels of serum total cholesterol TC , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , triglycerides TG , or a decreased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C concentration. Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease CVD. We aimed to investigate the association of dyslipidemia and CVD events among a population sample from Mashhad, in northeastern Iran. Socioeconomic and demographic status, anthropometric parameters, laboratory evaluations, lifestyle factors, and medical history were gathered through a comprehensive questionnaire and laboratory and clinical assessment for all participants.

Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk among the MASHAD study population

Cardiovascular disease CVD is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease.

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide except Africa. There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels. They are known as vascular diseases. There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, sex, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure hypertension , raised blood sugar diabetes mellitus , raised blood cholesterol hyperlipidemia , undiagnosed celiac disease , psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution.

Genetic factors influence the development of cardiovascular disease in men who are less than 55 years old and in women who are less than 65 years old. Age is the most important risk factor in developing cardiovascular or heart diseases, with approximately a tripling of risk with each decade of life.

One of them relates to serum cholesterol level. In men, this increase levels off around age 45 to 50 years. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years.

Aging is also associated with changes in the mechanical and structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance and may subsequently lead to coronary artery disease. Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women. Coronary heart diseases are 2 to 5 times more common among middle-aged men than women. Estrogen may have protective effects on glucose metabolism and hemostatic system, and may have direct effect in improving endothelial cell function.

Among men and women, there are differences in body weight, height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume, and arterial compliance. Cigarettes are the major form of smoked tobacco. Insufficient physical activity defined as less than 5 x 30 minutes of moderate activity per week, or less than 3 x 20 minutes of vigorous activity per week is currently the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide.

These effects may, at least in part, explain its cardiovascular benefits. High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk, although whether all these associations indicate causes is disputed.

The World Health Organization attributes approximately 1. The relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is complex, and may depend on the amount of alcohol consumed.

Untreated celiac disease can cause the development of many types of cardiovascular diseases, most of which improve or resolve with a gluten-free diet and intestinal healing. However, delays in recognition and diagnosis of celiac disease can cause irreversible heart damage.

Sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and insomnia , as well as particularly short duration of sleep or particularly long duration of sleep, have been found to be associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk. Cardiovascular disease affects low- and middle-income countries even more than high-income countries. Psychosocial factors, environmental exposures, health behaviours, and health-care access and quality contribute to socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease.

Particulate matter has been studied for its short- and long-term exposure effects on cardiovascular disease. Currently, airborne particles under 2. Overall, long-term PM exposure increased rate of atherosclerosis and inflammation. Existing cardiovascular disease or a previous cardiovascular event, such as a heart attack or stroke, is the strongest predictor of a future cardiovascular event. They include family history, coronary artery calcification score, high sensitivity C-reactive protein hs-CRP , ankle—brachial pressure index , lipoprotein subclasses and particle concentration, lipoprotein a , apolipoproteins A-I and B, fibrinogen , white blood cell count, homocysteine , N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP , and markers of kidney function.

There is evidence that mental health problems, in particular depression and traumatic stress, is linked to cardiovascular diseases. Whereas mental health problems are known to be associated with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as smoking, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, these factors alone do not explain the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases seen in depression, stress, and anxiety.

Little is known about the relationship between work and cardiovascular disease, but links have been established between certain toxins, extreme heat and cold, exposure to tobacco smoke, and mental health concerns such as stress and depression. A SBU-report looking at non-chemical factors found an association for those: [62]. Specifically the risk of stroke was also increased by exposure to ionizing radiation. A SBU report found evidence that workplace exposure to silica dust , engine exhaust or welding fumes is associated with heart disease.

Workplace exposure to silica dust or asbestos is also associated with pulmonary heart disease. There is evidence that workplace exposure to lead, carbon disulphide, phenoxyacids containing TCDD, as well as working in an environment where aluminum is being electrolytically produced, is associated with stroke.

As of , evidence suggests that certain leukemia -associated mutations in blood cells may also lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several large-scale research projects looking at human genetic data have found a robust link between the presence of these mutations, a condition known as clonal hematopoiesis , and cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality.

Radiation treatments for cancer can increase the risk of heart disease and death as observed in previous breast RT regimens. Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and oxidative stress can lead to these and other late side-effect symptoms. Population-based studies show that atherosclerosis, the major precursor of cardiovascular disease, begins in childhood.

The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth PDAY study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7—9 years. This is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis. In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.

Obesity and diabetes mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease, [70] as are a history of chronic kidney disease and hypercholesterolaemia. Screening ECGs either at rest or with exercise are not recommended in those without symptoms who are at low risk.

The NIH recommends lipid testing in children beginning at the age of 2 if there is a family history of heart disease or lipid problems. Screening and selection for primary prevention interventions has traditionally been done through absolute risk using a variety of scores ex. Framingham or Reynolds risk scores. The number and variety of risk scores available for use has multiplied, but their efficacy according to a review was unclear due to lack of external validation or impact analysis.

Most guidelines recommend combining preventive strategies. A Cochrane Review found some evidence that interventions aiming to reduce more than one cardiovascular risk factor may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference; however, evidence was limited and the authors were unable to draw firm conclusions on the effects on cardiovascular events and mortality. It is unclear whether or not dental care in those with periodontitis affects their risk of cardiovascular disease.

A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Worldwide, dietary guidelines recommend a reduction in saturated fat , [] and although the role of dietary fat in cardiovascular disease is complex and controversial there is a long-standing consensus that replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat in the diet is sound medical advice. A Cochrane review found unclear benefit of recommending a low-salt diet in people with high or normal blood pressure.

Blood pressure medication reduces cardiovascular disease in people at risk, [97] irrespective of age, [] the baseline level of cardiovascular risk, [] or baseline blood pressure. Statins are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease in people with a history of cardiovascular disease. Anti-diabetic medication may reduce cardiovascular risk in people with Type 2 Diabetes, although evidence is not conclusive. Aspirin has been found to be of only modest benefit in those at low risk of heart disease as the risk of serious bleeding is almost equal to the benefit with respect to cardiovascular problems.

The use of vasoactive agents for people with pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease or hypoxemic lung diseases may cause harm and unnecessary expense. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation following a heart attack reduces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and leads to less hospitalizations. A Cochrane review found some evidence that yoga has beneficial effects on blood pressure and cholesterol, but studies included in this review were of low quality.

While a healthy diet is beneficial, the effect of antioxidant supplementation vitamin E , vitamin C , etc. Cardiovascular disease is treatable with initial treatment primarily focused on diet and lifestyle interventions. Proper CVD management necessitates a focus on MI and stroke cases due to their combined high mortality rate, keeping in mind the cost-effectiveness of any intervention, especially in developing countries with low or middle-income levels.

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in all regions except Africa. It is also estimated that by , over 23 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases each year.

This may be secondary to a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Organizations such as the Indian Heart Association are working with the World Heart Federation to raise awareness about this issue.

There is evidence that cardiovascular disease existed in pre-history, [] and research into cardiovascular disease dates from at least the 18th century. Recent areas of research include the link between inflammation and atherosclerosis [] the potential for novel therapeutic interventions, [] and the genetics of coronary heart disease.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. See also: Cardiovascular disease in women. See also: Lipid hypothesis , Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease , and Salt and cardiovascular disease. Main article: Occupational cardiovascular disease. See also: Timeline of cardiovascular disease. January Archived PDF from the original on August The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Bibcode : PLoSO September Health Technology Assessment. Archived from the original on World Health Organization. Retrieved Nov 11, Current Atherosclerosis Reports. World Journal of Cardiology Review. October Nature Genetics.

International Journal of Cardiology. International Journal of Endocrinology. American Heart Association.

Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

The cardiovascular CV risk related to lipid disorders is well established and is based on a robust body of evidence from well-designed randomized clinical trials, as well as prospective observational studies. In the last two decades, significant advances have been made in understanding the genetic basis of dyslipidemias. The present review is intended as a comprehensive discussion of current knowledge about the genetics and pathophysiology of disorders that predispose to dyslipidemia. Cholesterol is essential for the proper functioning of several body systems. However, dyslipidemia—especially elevated low-density lipoprotein LDL-c and triglyceride levels, as well as reduced lipoprotein lipase activity—is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease CAD.

The association between common dyslipidemias combined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, metabolic Syndrome MetS , isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and isolated hypertriglyceridemia compared with normolipidemia and the risk of multivessel CAC is underinvestigated. Objectives To determine whether there is an association between common dyslipidemias compared with normolipidemia, and the extent of coronary artery involvement among MESA participants who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Multivessel CAC was defined as involvement of at least 2 coronary arteries. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis evaluated the association of each group with multivessel CAC after adjusting for CVD risk factors. Results Unadjusted analysis showed that all groups except hypertriglyceridemia had statistically significant prevalence ratios of having multivessel CAC as compared to the normolipidemia group. The same groups maintained statistical significance prevalence ratios with multivariate analysis adjusting for other risk factors including Agatston CAC score [combined hyperlipidemia 1.


PETER T. Kuo, M.D.. VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Summary: Genetically determined and metabolically induced.


Primary Prevention of CVD: Treating Dyslipidemia

But what about coronary artery disease? Is there a difference? The short answer is often no — health professionals frequently use the terms interchangeably. Fisher, M. View an illustration of coronary arteries.

Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

Dyslipidemia is a primary, widely established as an independent major risk factor for coronary artery disease CAD. Asians differs in prevalence of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians. Hence, this study was conducted with objective to evaluate the lipid abnormalities and there correlation with traditional and non-traditional risk factors in known subjects with CAD. We studied the pattern and association of dyslipidemia with cardiovascular risk factors in Male: ; Female: 84, age: All patients were evaluated for anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors and blood samples were collected for biochemical and inflammatory markers. Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein HDL was present in A total of

Cardiovascular disease CVD is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide except Africa. There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels. They are known as vascular diseases. There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, sex, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure hypertension , raised blood sugar diabetes mellitus , raised blood cholesterol hyperlipidemia , undiagnosed celiac disease , psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution.

Strategies aimed at primary prevention provide an outstanding opportunity for reducing the onset and burden of cardiovascular CV disease. Lipid abnormalities, including high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C , are associated with an increased risk of CV events, thereby serving as contributors to this process. By consensus, lowering LDL-C, generally with statin therapy, is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy. However, statin therapy may be insufficient for patients with mixed dyslipidemia, especially those with insulin resistance syndromes. While the addition of niacin, fibrate or omega-3 fatty acids may be useful in this setting, outcomes data are lacking.

Primary Prevention of CVD: Treating Dyslipidemia

Despite the importance of identifying and screening dyslipidemia to prevent coronary artery diseases CAD Coronary Artery Disease , little information is available on dyslipidemia in our large area. So the present study aimed to assess the management status of lipid abnormalities and its association with other CAD risk factors in an urban population of southeast of Iran. Lipid profile was assessed using enzymatic laboratory methods. In total, persons from participants were assessed in whom

The association between common dyslipidemias combined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, metabolic Syndrome MetS , isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and isolated hypertriglyceridemia compared with normolipidemia and the risk of multivessel CAC is underinvestigated. To determine whether there is an association between common dyslipidemias compared with normolipidemia, and the extent of coronary artery involvement among MESA participants who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Multivessel CAC was defined as involvement of at least 2 coronary arteries. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis evaluated the association of each group with multivessel CAC after adjusting for CVD risk factors.

Welty FK. Cardiovascular Disease and Dyslipidemia in Women. Arch Intern Med. Cardiovascular disease, primarily coronary heart disease CHD , outnumbers the next 16 causes of death in women combined.

Cardiovascular Disease and Dyslipidemia in Women

К человеку в моем положении часто приходят с… ну, вы понимаете. - Да, мистер Клушар, конечно, понимаю.

3 COMMENTS

Olympia M.

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Cardiology ; Dyslipidemia and Coronary Artery Disease. Prevalence and Treatment in Patients Referred for Coronary.

Rocifogar1976

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Dyslipidemia is a primary, widely established as an independent major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Asians differs in prevalence of various lipid.

Derthanetway

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cholesterol levels, other factors also are involved in development of coronary heart disease. Among the main risk factors, dyslipidemia, especially increase in LDL.

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