Harappa And Mohenjo Daro Pdf

harappa and mohenjo daro pdf

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A detailed note about the features, sites, society, religion etc.

Photograph Courtesy : Wikimedia Commons. The Indus Valley Civilization may have been one of the things you read in school and forgotten. Scientists are still clueless about the reason for its sudden extinction.

Skip to main content. Search box. Download Master thesis open access. The military aspects of the fortifications will be the focus of this thesis and are evaluated according to primary and secondary features. The primary features are 1.

Harappa And Mohenjo-daro: Amazing Story of The Two Greatest Cities of The Ancient World

A well-planned street grid and an elaborate drainage system hint that the occupants of the ancient Indus civilization city of Mohenjo Daro were skilled urban planners with a reverence for the control of water. But just who occupied the ancient city in modern-day Pakistan during the third millennium B. The city lacks ostentatious palaces, temples, or monuments. There's no obvious central seat of government or evidence of a king or queen. Modesty, order, and cleanliness were apparently preferred.

Pottery and tools of copper and stone were standardized. Seals and weights suggest a system of tightly controlled trade. The city's wealth and stature is evident in artifacts such as ivory, lapis, carnelian, and gold beads, as well as the baked-brick city structures themselves. A watertight pool called the Great Bath, perched on top of a mound of dirt and held in place with walls of baked brick, is the closest structure Mohenjo Daro has to a temple.

Possehl, a National Geographic grantee, says it suggests an ideology based on cleanliness. Wells were found throughout the city, and nearly every house contained a bathing area and drainage system. Archaeologists first visited Mohenjo Daro in Several excavations occurred in the s through Small probes took place in the s, and subsequent digs occurred in and The ancient city sits on elevated ground in the modern-day Larkana district of Sindh province in Pakistan.

During its heyday from about to B. It spread out over about acres hectares on a series of mounds, and the Great Bath and an associated large building occupied the tallest mound. According to University of Wisconsin, Madison, archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, also a National Geographic grantee, the mounds grew organically over the centuries as people kept building platforms and walls for their houses.

With no evidence of kings or queens, Mohenjo Daro was likely governed as a city-state, perhaps by elected officials or elites from each of the mounds.

A miniature bronze statuette of a nude female, known as the dancing girl, was celebrated by archaeologists when it was discovered in , Kenoyer notes. Of greater interest to him, though, are a few stone sculptures of seated male figures, such as the intricately carved and colored Priest King, so called even though there is no evidence he was a priest or king.

The sculptures were all found broken, Kenoyer says. Kenoyer suggests that the Indus River changed course, which would have hampered the local agricultural economy and the city's importance as a center of trade.

But no evidence exists that flooding destroyed the city, and the city wasn't totally abandoned, Kenoyer says.

And, Possehl says, a changing river course doesn't explain the collapse of the entire Indus civilization. Throughout the valley, the culture changed, he says. All rights reserved. Mohenjo Daro A person standing in the doorway of the Monastery at Petra, Jordan, shows the enormity of the ancient building's entrance.

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Mohenjo Daro

Built around BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation , and one of the world's earliest major cities , contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt , Mesopotamia , Minoan Crete , and Norte Chico. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the s. The city's original name is unknown. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city's ancient name could have been Kukkutarma "the city [ -rma ] of the cockerel [ kukkuta ]". Mohenjo-daro may also have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens. Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, has been variously interpreted as "Mound of the Dead Men" in Sindhi , and as "Mound of Mohan" where Mohan is Krishna. The Indus still flows east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed on the western side is now dry.


The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture. Archaeologists excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site: Saddle querns.


Mohenjo Daro

Similar to the other cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, the streets were laid out in a grid-like pattern, running either north to south or east to west. In these two civilizations the both were farmers. Indus valley civilization ppt 1. Civilization was the most extensive among all other ancient civilizations. Through a careful examination of the most recent archaeological discoveries from excavations in both Pakistan and India, the author provides a stimulating discussion on the nature of the early cities and their inhabitants.

Great Bath , ancient structure at Mohenjo-daro , Pakistan , an archaeological site featuring ruins of the Indus civilization. The Great Bath dates to the 3rd millennium bce and is believed to have been used for ritual bathing. The Great Bath is part of a large citadel complex that was found in the s during excavations of Mohenjo-daro, one of the main centres of the Indus civilization. The bath is built of fine brickwork and measures square feet 83 square metres.

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Он обладал сверхъестественной способностью одерживать верх над всеми, кто бросал ему вызов. Шесть месяцев назад, когда Фонд электронных границ обнародовал информацию о том, что подводная лодка АНБ прослушивает подводные телефонные кабели, Стратмор организовал утечку информации о том, что эта подводная лодка на самом деле занимается незаконным сбросом токсичных отходов. ФЭГ и экологи так и не смогли установить, какая из двух версий соответствует истине, и средства массовой информации в конце концов устали от всей этой истории и перешли к другим темам. Каждый шаг Стратмора был рассчитан самым тщательным образом.

4 COMMENTS

Giordano M.

REPLY

A well-planned street grid and an elaborate drainage system hint that the occupants of the ancient Indus civilization city of Mohenjo Daro were skilled urban planners with a reverence for the control of water.

Reece J.

REPLY

the archaeological sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro and fall within the Mature Harappan period of BC to BC, there are a number of artefacts from.

Proxnetwanonp

REPLY

In an early report on. 13 excavations at Mohenjo-daro, the Indus civilisation's largest city, Ernest Mackay described a. 14 Like Harappa, Mohenjo-daro appears to manifest. bhepallianceinc.org​pdf.

Blocutnephvers

REPLY

However, when the Indus River changed its course around years ago, the civilization died. All Indus valley sites including Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, were.

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