File Name: computer hardware parts pictures and names .zip
Computer Diagram and Label; Diagram of a computer system unit and all the components.
- Parts of a Computer and Their Functions
- The central processing unit (CPU): Its components and functionality
- computer parts names and pictures pdf
Parts of a Computer and Their Functions
In this article, I discuss the central processing unit CPU , including its components and functionality. Many of the topics refer back to the first article, so be sure to read it if you haven't already. The CPU in modern computers is the embodiment of the "mill" in Babbage's difference engine. The term central processing unit originated way back in the mists of computer time when a single massive cabinet contained the circuitry required to interpret machine level program instructions and perform operations on the data supplied.
The central processing unit also completed all processing for any attached peripheral devices. Peripherals included printers, card readers, and early storage devices such as drum and disk drives. Modern peripheral devices have a significant amount of processing power themselves and off-load some processing tasks from the CPU. We retain the term CPU today, but now it refers to the processor package on a typical motherboard.
Figure 1 displays a standard Intel processor package. There is really nothing to see here other than the processor package itself.
The processor package is a chip containing the processor s sealed inside a metal container and mounted on a small printed circuit PC board. The package is simply dropped into place in the CPU socket on a motherboard and secured with a locking lever arrangement. A CPU cooler attaches to the processor package. There are several different physical sockets with specific numbers of contacts, so getting the correct package to fit the motherboard socket is essential if you build your own computers.
Let's look at the CPU in more detail. Figure 2 is a conceptual diagram of a hypothetical CPU so that you can visualize the components more easily. Suffice it to say that signals from the clock and the control unit are an integral part of every other component. This design does not look particularly simple, but the reality is even more complicated.
This figure is sufficient for our purposes without being overly complex. The arithmetic logic unit ALU performs the arithmetic and logical functions that are the work of the computer. The A and B registers hold the input data, and the accumulator receives the result of the operation. The instruction register contains the instruction that the ALU is to perform.
For example, when adding two numbers, one number is placed in the A register and the other in the B register. The ALU performs the addition and puts the result in the accumulator. If the operation is a logical one, the data to be compared is placed into the input registers.
The result of the comparison, a 1 or 0, is put in the accumulator. Whether this is a logical or arithmetic operation, the accumulator content is then placed into the cache location reserved by the program for the result.
There is another type of operation performed by the ALU. The result is an address in memory, and it is used to calculate a new location in memory to begin loading instructions. The result is placed into the instruction pointer register. The instruction pointer specifies the location in memory containing the next instruction to be executed by the CPU.
When the CPU completes the execution of the current instruction, the next instruction is loaded into the instruction register from the memory location pointed to by the instruction pointer.
After the instruction is loaded into the instruction register, the instruction register pointer is incremented by one instruction address. Modern CPUs have one or more layers of cache. The reasons for this are beyond the scope of this article, but I will explore it further in the next article.
When the CPU needs data—and program instructions are also considered to be data—the cache determines whether the data is already in residence and provides it to the CPU. The cache controller analyzes the requested data and tries to predict what additional data will be needed from RAM. It loads the anticipated data into the cache. Our simple CPU has three levels of cache. Levels 2 and 3 are designed to predict what data and program instructions will be needed next, move that data from RAM, and move it ever closer to the CPU to be ready when needed.
These cache sizes typically range from 1 MB to 32 MB, depending upon the speed and intended use of the processor. The Level 1 cache is closest to the CPU.
In our CPU, there are two types of L1 cache. L1i is the instruction cache, and L1d is the data cache. Level 1 cache sizes typically range from 64 KB to KB. It also provides memory protection required in multitasking environments and conversion between virtual memory addresses and physical addresses.
All of the CPU components must be synchronized to work together smoothly. The control unit performs this function at a rate determined by the clock speed and is responsible for directing the operations of the other units by using timing signals that extend throughout the CPU.
Its function is to store programs and data so that they are ready for use when the CPU needs them. The instruction, which may contain static data or pointers to variable data, is fetched and placed into the instruction register. The instruction is decoded, and any data is placed into the A and B data registers. The instruction is executed using the A and B registers, with the result put into the accumulator.
The CPU then increases the instruction pointer's value by the length of the previous one and begins again. There are multiple strategies for boosting CPU performance, and we look at two of them here. For example, when the current instruction has been decoded, the next one is fetched and placed into the instruction register.
As soon as that has occurred, the instruction pointer is updated with the next instruction's memory address. The use of overlapping instruction cycles is illustrated in Figure 4. Not having the proper data or instructions in the cache requires the MMU to locate the correct ones and move them to the CPU, and that can take some time. Certain instructions also take more CPU cycles to complete than others, interfering with smooth overlapping.
Another strategy to improve CPU performance is hyperthreading. Hyperthreading makes a single processor core work like two CPUs by providing two data and instruction streams. Adding a second instruction pointer and instruction register to our hypothetical CPU, as shown in Figure 5, causes it to function like two CPUs, executing two separate instruction streams during each instruction cycle.
Also, when one execution stream stalls while waiting for data—again, instructions are also data—the second execution stream continues processing. Each core that implements hyperthreading is the equivalent of two CPUs in its ability to process instructions. Remember that this is a very simplified diagram and explanation of our hypothetical CPU. The reality is far more complex.
I have encountered a lot of different CPU terminology. To define the terminology a little more explicitly, let's look at the CPU itself by using the lscpu command. The Intel processor shown above is a package that plugs into a single socket on the motherboard.
The processor package contains six cores. Each core is capable of hyperthreading, so each can run two simultaneous threads for a total of 12 CPUs. The terms socket , processor , and package are often used interchangeably, which can cause some confusion. As we see from the lscpu command results above, Intel provides us with its own terminology, and I consider that the authoritative source.
In reality, we all use those terms in various ways, but as long as we understand each other at any given point, that is what really matters. The Level 1 cache is closest to the CPU, and it speeds things up to have instructions and data separate at this point. Level 2 and Level 3 caches are larger, but instructions and data co-exist in each. Good question. Back in the early days of mainframes, each computer had only a single CPU and was incapable of running more than one program simultaneously.
The mainframe might run payroll, then inventory accounting, then customer billing, and so on, but only one application could run at a time. Each program had to finish before the system operator could start the next. Some early attempts at running multiple programs at once took a simple approach and were aimed at better utilization of a single CPU. At that point, program2 ran until it was blocked. This approach was called multi-processing and helped to fully utilize valuable computer time.
Early attempts at multitasking all involved switching the execution context of a single CPU very rapidly between the execution streams of multiple tasks. This practice is not true multitasking as we understand it because, in reality, only a single thread of execution is processed at a time. It is more correctly called time-sharing. Modern computers, from smart watches and tablets to supercomputers, all support true multitasking with multiple CPUs.
Multiple CPUs enable computers to run many tasks simultaneously. An eight-core processor with hyperthreading i. We looked at a conceptualized and simplified CPU to learn a bit about structures. I barely skimmed the surface of processor functionality in this article.
You can learn more by taking the embedded links for the topics we explored. Remember that the diagrams and descriptions in this article are purely conceptual and do not represent any actual CPU.
The central processing unit (CPU): Its components and functionality
Parts of a Computer These printable worksheets can be used to teach students about the parts of a computer, including the mouse, CPU, keyboard, printer, and router. A computer system consists of both hardware and software. Such as the keyboard and mouse. I Central Processing Unit : The brains of the computer, which performs the primary computations I Some computations may be o oaded to other parts of the computer, but the CPU remains the central area of computation I Each modern CPU consists of hundreds of millions of individual switches, each switch physically constructed as a transistor, 5 0 obj 5. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. And the monitor screen of the computer, that commonly found at the rear back of the CPU or system unit.
Name 3 computer hardware components. 2. Name 3 computer software applications. 3. What does CPU stand for? 4. What is RAM?
computer parts names and pictures pdf
Want to know what hardware is in your computer? Become a computer pro with our quick guide to these essential components and their roles. Quite simply, computer hardware is the physical components that a computer system requires to function. It encompasses everything with a circuit board that operates within a PC or laptop; including the motherboard, graphics card, CPU Central Processing Unit , ventilation fans, webcam, power supply, and so on.
Hardware refers to the physical, tangible computer equipment and devices, which provide support for major functions such as input, processing internal storage, computation and control , output, secondary storage for data and programs , and communication. A computer system is a set of integrated devices that input, output, process, and store data and information. Computer systems are currently built around at least one digital processing device.
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